DICTIONARY OF MUSICAL TERMS. 1. AB form - A musical plan that has two different parts, or sections. See form. ABA form - A musical plan. art-music: a general term used to describe the "formal concert music" traditions of the West, art song: (genre) a musical setting of artistic poetry for solo voice. literature. These are words and phrases which I have found in solo and Any serious student of music should own a copy of the Harvard Dictionary of Music.
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The Musical Terminology and Symbols represented here are the basic terms They also know how to perform a musical composition when these terms and. In mediaeval music the term accent was also applied to musical notation, the first two and most common of the signs being the accentus acutus, and accentus. Glossary of Common Musical Terms. A cappella – Singing without an accompaniment. Accelerando - Gradually quicken tempo. Adagio - A tempo having slow.
The results see Fig. Music along the x-axis is organized by an instrument group, with the first four pieces featuring woodwind and the second four pieces being string quartets. Within each instrument group, the music is arranged from fast to slow tempo.
Early on the day of the event, a trio of Finnish rock guitarists had come up with their own musical improvisations on tasting each of the wines see [ 15 ], for a description. The guitarists played the four short improvisations in a random order while the members of the audience had to try and guess which wine the musicians had been inspired by after listening to each piece.
Intriguingly, the other two improvisations for the two Chateau Carsin wines were paired by nearly 20 people with the champagne and by another 20 or so with the dessert wine. At this point, it is worth noting that given the constraints of glassware provisioning at the majority of large-scale tasting events, wines are normally served in standard issue clear wine glasses.
As such, one might therefore legitimately wonder whether what people are actually matching to the music is not the taste, or bouquet, of the wine per se but rather its colour.
Such concerns become all the more worrying given Palmer et al. Bear in mind here only the fact that the majority of people can probably imagine the colour red vs. One of the challenges, then, moving forward will be to repeat these kinds of demonstrations with wines that are more similar perhaps starting with the same colour, then the same grape, and so on.
Removing any obvious colour differences would certainly be an important first step in helping to rule out a colour-based account of many of the wine-music matching results that have been reported to date. Interim summary To summarize what we have seen so far, regular drinkers do indeed appear to feel a certain affinity between specific wines and music. As such, all the wine writers who have used musical metaphors and analogues to describe a wine can probably rest assured that most people really do experience crossmodal correspondences between music and wine [ 11 , 14 , 15 ]; see also [ 21 ].
In the case of the most stark contrast i.
However, by far, the majority chose a common metaphorical attribute that the wine and music both had in common, such as robustness, lightness, complexity, sharpness or richness. It is worth stressing that we have only reported on the results of the wine-music matching events that we are more familiar with. We are, though, aware that numerous other music-wine matching events have been taking place around the world over the last couple of years: from events organized by enologist and food engineer Stella Vassiliki in Crete, Greece, to the aforementioned music and wine matching workshop held in Oxford with Ben Houge [ 29 ].
A number of wine-music events have also been hosted in major cities such as London [ 14 , 30 , 31 ] 12 and Munich [ 31 ]. Over the last few years, Martin Sachse-Weinert [ 32 ] has had more than people, including many wine industry professionals, matching music and wine. All - in - all, there has been a real explosion of interest in such wine-music matching events in recent years. But, of course, music varies in so many dimensions: think only of timbre, brightness, rhythm, articulation legato, staccato and so on.
But then again so does wine, think only of aroma first and second nose , taste, mouthfeel, flavour and so on. One could all too easily feel at a loss as to where to begin.
Here, we are going to start with the matching of music to the basic tastes by which we mean sweet, sour, bitter, salty and umami that may be present in wine.
Here, a large body of empirical research shows that sweetness tends to be matched with sounds that are higher in pitch, with the sound of the piano, with music that is legato in articulation, and with consonant harmonies [ 12 , 13 ].
By contrast, sourness tends to be matched with very high pitch sounds, fast tempo, and dissonant harmonies instead [ 12 , 13 ]. While some writers have tasted saltiness or a hint of umami in the wines that they have tried [ 35 ], 14 such descriptions are rare.
Hence, for the moment, they can be safely ignored here. Though rest assured that the musical parameters that are associated with these basic tastes have been established; see [ 33 , 36 , 37 ]. No one listens only to the bass, but the sounds of the bass notes has an important role to give depth and presence to music.
Umami likewise creates balance and harmony in dishes.
The participants were seated in front of a virtual keyboard that allowed them to play each one of the 52 possible sounds i.
The results demonstrated that for a number of the tastes and aromas, the participants were consistent in terms of the notes and instruments that they felt went especially well together. In contrast, lower pitched musical notes were associated with musky, woody, dark chocolate, and smoky aromas, bitter tastes and brassy instruments.
Graph shows mean pitch matched to each odour. They typically look like this Key signature: An arrangement of sharps or flats see below found on the far left of every staff indicating which pitches are to be played for a particular piece or section.
An example of a key signature is the one for G Major, which looks like this Accidental: Any of the symbols sharp, flat, natural that indicate the raising or lowering of a pitch and appear next to the notes themselves instead of in the key signature.
Flat: A symbol which looks like located to the left side of a particular note that indicates you are to play it a half-step lower than its natural tone that is notated. For example, if you see a printed tone of E with a next to it, you are to play E-flat which is a half-step lower than E. E is a white key on the piano, and E-flat is the black key immediately to its left.
Natural: A symbol placed to the left of a note that indicates you are to play it at the given pitch without any alteration higher or lower. For example, if you see a G with a natural sign beside it, you are to play a G-natural which is the same as the note G. Notes with a natural sign will always be white keys on the piano. The symbol for a natural sign is Repeat sign: This symbol indicates that a section of music is to be played again immediately.
It often appears at the end of A and B sections in binary form. The symbol for a repeat sign is First 1st and second 2nd endings: Multiple endings that may occur at a repeat sign. You play the first ending first, then after repeating the section, you go directly to the second ending, skipping the first.
Like the previous category, understanding the concepts contained in these terms is essential to learning to read music.
These terms will help you know how long you should play a given pitch or how long a period of silence should be. As you become a more advanced pianist, you can use the duration of a note or silence for expressive purposes which will help you become a more inspired, mature performer. These terms are also important in learning to play in time with others and for rehearsals with others.
This picture shows a whole note on the left and a whole bar rest on the right. The left and middle items in this photo are half notes, and the item on the right is a half bar rest. This picture shows 2 quarter notes; the last item on the right is a quarter rest. This picture shows eighth notes quavers with an eighth quaver rest on the right.
This photo shows sixteenth notes semiquavers ; the last item on the right is a sixteenth semiquaver rest.
A 32nd-note demisemiquaver looks like this and a 32nd rest looks like this Dotted half note dotted minim : A doted half note generally sounds for 3 beats. On and off beats: A pattern of stressed strong and unstressed weak beats determined by the meter. These terms are usually in Italian and sometimes in French or German. Understanding these terms will help you quickly determine the relative speed at which you should play a particular piece which will help make your practice time more efficient and allow you to make faster progress at your lessons and with your studies in general.
Accelerando accel. Ritardando ritard. These relative terms convey how loud or soft you should play a given passage of music.
There is no set decibel level; how soft is soft enough and how loud is loud enough is open to interpretation and will vary depending on the piece, the passage, and what comes before and after it.
Written as abbreviations or with symbols, the dynamic markings can change quite often over the course of a piece and quite quickly, so having a good understanding of them will help you work faster and allow you to avoid getting frustrated. Some of the terms like crescendo and decrescendo refer to getting louder or softer over time, and you can use these as tools for personal expression, as every pianist will have a different idea about how gradually these should be done and a different way of executing them.
They are indicated by their abbreviations decresc. This often comes after a loud note or passage and introduces an element of surprise into the music. These elements described in these terms are what will make you an artistic, sophisticated piano player.
They refer to style and expression in music, which every pianist will do in a slightly different way. Accompaniment: The music used underneath the main theme or most interesting material of the moment to support it; typically, this can be harmony but may sometimes be a melody.
For example, pianists often have a melody in the right hand supported by chords that accompany it in the left hand. Accompaniment is usually played more softly than the melody. Slur: A curved marking printed over a group of notes to indicate that they should be played smoothly and sound connected to each other.
A slur looks like this Dot: Dots appear as markings above or beneath notes which are meant to be played short or with space between them not smooth. Dots can be used for many different types of articulation and can mean different things. Dots typically look like this Staccato: One type of articulation that is indicated by dots; Staccato notes are to be played short and separated from the notes around them by a slight space.
Marcato marc. Marcato is usually printed as a word or abbreviation, but it can sometimes appear as this symbol over a note Accent: Similar to marcato; It indicates that a particular note is to be heavily stressed and is represented by this symbol over or under a given note Legato: Played in a smooth, connected way; often indicated by a slur Tenuto ten.
Con pedale: This direction indicates that the pianist should put down use a pedal when playing the given passage. Knowing these terms helps you keep your place in a rehearsal with others, too. Da capo D. The piano is a perfect instrument for many different styles of music including pop and jazz. Jazz and pop styles use many of the same terms as classical piano, but they have some of their own terms also.