Amyotrofik lateral skleroz, ayrıca Lou Gehring hastalığı olarak da bilinir, primer korteks, beyinsapı ve spinal kordda motor nöron dejenerasyonu ile karakterize en. Amyotrofik lateral skleroz (ALS) motor nöronların hasarı ile seyreden ve günümüzde Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal disorder of motor neuron degeneration with unclear etiol- ; Epub ahead of print. Request PDF on ResearchGate | Türkiye'deki Amyotroﬁk Lateral Skleroz (ALS) Hastalarının Kan Plazmalarında c9orf72 Protein Miktarlarının.
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Unusual Suspects of. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). An Investigation for the Mechanism of the Motor Neuron Degeneration. PDF () Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis also known as Lou Gehring's disease, is the Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: an update for clinical features. Key words: Atypical,Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, EMG, discectomy,Foot-drop. Düşük Ayakla Başvuran Atipik Başlangıçlı Amyotrofik Lateral Skleroz Olgusunda .
There is a relentless progression of symptoms and signs. Diagnostic criteria This is of course a diagnosis which needs a great deal of careful consideration given the poor prognosis. Nevertheless, it is equally important to ensure that the diagnosis is not unduly delayed.
One study found that the average time from suspected diagnosis to confirmation was one year. The authors called for greater educational input in primary and secondary care and a fast-track referral service. Important diagnoses which may cause confusion are listed in the box under 'Differential diagnosis', below.
Because of the very variable clinical presentation, the diagnostic criteria below have been devised, taking into account investigations to confirm the diagnosis and refute other possible causes revised El Escorial Criteria : Presence of: Evidence of LMN degeneration by clinical, electrophysiological or neuropathological examination.
Evidence of UMN degeneration by clinical examination. Progressive spread of symptoms or signs within a region or to other regions, as determined by history or examination. Neuroimaging evidence of other disease processes that might explain the observed clinical and electrophysiological signs.
The World Federation of Neurology WFN has proposed further revision in the light of advances in neurophysiological techniques which can accurately detect degenerative neurological changes. They recommend upgrading the neurophysiological findings and making them as significant as the clinical findings in the diagnosis of ALS. Differential diagnosis The differential diagnosis is vast, dependent on the mode of presentation, clinical findings and comorbidities.
Diagnoses of particular importance have been singled out in the box below with features which distinguish them from MND. Important diseases that can mimic MND[ 1 ] Benign cramp fasciculation syndrome: Fasciculation or cramps usually affecting large muscles for example, calves.
The fasciculation is more common after exercise or with lack of sleep. There is no wasting or weakness on examination. There is no progression over time.
Cervical radiculomyelopathy multilevel degenerative disease of the cervical spine : This can present with a mixture of LMN wasting and weakness and UMN brisk reflexes and spasticity signs.
There is pain localised to the neck or radicular and sensory disturbance. There are no bulbar symptoms and signs. MRI scan of the cervical spine can confirm the diagnosis.
Dual pathologies: A cervical myelopathy and a co-existent peripheral neuropathy can present as a mixed upper-lower motor neurone picture. Sensory signs and symptoms and absence of bulbar symptoms help to diagnose this.
Neurophysiological assessment and imaging will confirm the diagnosis. Multifocal motor neuropathy with conduction block: Often presents in young or middle-aged men as unilateral distal upper limb weakness with little evidence of wasting initially.
This is an important rare diagnosis to consider in differential diagnosis of MND. In the correct clinical context, it can be diagnosed or excluded only by careful neurophysiological evaluation looking for conduction block. Genetic profiles that promote physical fitness but not necessarily muscles strength could hold a proportional correlation between ALS and physical activity. This study also found that among individuals with long period of exposure to formaldehyde, the ALS death rate was more than 2 times higher compared to those unexposed one.
Among all the heavy metals that might be associated with ALS, lead exposure seems to be studied the most possibly due to the ALS-like symptoms experienced by people exposed to high concentrations of lead. When a group of researchers utilized an expert evaluation panel of industrial hygienists to examine self-reported occupational lead exposures, no association was found between ALS and lead exposure.
Because of this, there may be a lack of information about the frequency and the amount of exposure to environmental factors. Also, this may also lead to the absence of biological markers in order to validate patient claims of exposure or pinpoint the possible action site.
Furthermore, due to ALS prolonged onset, it is difficult to isolate an exact environmental factor. In order to identify or narrow down possible ALS risk factors, a cohort study utilizing mice as a control and experimental group could be appropriate. Starting out with an emphasis on the most sought out factors smoking, heavy metals, physical activity, diet, radiation, and chemical exposure.
In order to track changes accurately, a type of biomarker specific to the possible risk factor could be designed, to theoretically track the progression of the disease. Also, elucidation of molecular mechanisms can yield insight into developing strategies for newer treatments.
The molecular basis of ALS is an intriguing issue that warrants in-depth research and investigation. The most important proposed hypothesis for the pathogenesis of ALS includes glutamate excitotoxicity structural and functional abnormalities of mitochondria, impaired axonal structure or transport defects, and free radical-mediated oxidative stress. Uptake of glutamate into synaptic vesicles is facilitated by vesicular glutamate transporters. Upon release of the vesicle, glutamate is removed from the synaptic cleft by several glial and neuronal cell transporter proteins, such as excitatory amino acid transporters EAATs.
These abnormalities included intron-retention and exon-skipping. Mitochondria are membrane bound organelles that have a significant role in vital processes such as intracellular energy production, cellular respiration, calcium homeostasis, and control of apoptosis. Functional defects and altered mitochondrial morphology such as fragmented network, swelling, and augmented cristae were found in soma and proximal axons of skeletal muscle and spinal motor neurons of ALS patients.
The normal process of electron transport chains is perturbed by the presence of mutant SOD1, causing less production of ATP. Some studies have demonstrated a decreased activity of respiratory chain complexes I and IV that are associated with defective energy metabolism. Thus, unraveling the relationship between aberrant mitochondria, calcium dysregulation, and neuronal death is critical for the understanding of ALS pathogenesis. Calcium is one of the most significant intracellular messengers that play an important role in the regulation of metabolic pathways, neuronal development, and synaptic transmission.
Mutant SOD1 has been found to disrupt calcium homeostasis.
Several studies have shown that intracellular calcium is misregulated in ALS patients. Mitochondria are constantly being transported and docked at the same time in areas with high demand of ATP and calcium homeostasis such as growth cones, nodes of Ranvier, and synaptic terminals. Several laboratories have identified disrupted axonal transport of mitochondria in ALS patients.
In addition to transmitting nerve impulses axons also transport organelles, RNA, proteins, lipids, and other cell parts to the axonal compartments.
Moving toward the soma is called retrograde and is performed by cytoplasmic dynein molecular motors while moving toward the synaptic structures at the neuromuscular junction is an anterograde transport and is conducted by microtubule-dependent kinesin. Dysregulation of axonal transport and the axonal compartment play a critical role in the pathophysiology of ALS. In several experiment with mutant SOD1 mice, loss of neurotrophic signaling and defective axonal transport were observed early in the disease process.
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